Chapter 9 Summary
So here we have a look through our knowledge of space in the 20th century and some key discoveries… More to be added and revised – week by week we are breaking down content as there is such much to condense….
1926 Liquid fueled rockets
1927 Ooort began to use pulsating stars as distance indicators so we were able to know our position within the Milky Way (the centre of the Milky Way is in the constellation Sagittarius.
The Oort cloud (named after the man himself… is possibly the source of all comets.
1930 Clyde Tombaugh discovered the planet Pluto – later to be declassified
Karl Jansky in 1931 experimented with radio waves and was able to discover waves coming from the centre of the galaxy (it is actually possible to detect Jupiter with a handheld radio!
Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, discovered cosmic microwave background radiation in 1964.
Fritz Zwicky began looking at clusters of stars more closely and the speed at which they travelled and put forward the theory of dark matter (invisible matter)
1957 Sputnik (Russia)
1958 Explorer 1 (USA)
1966 Lunar probe Surveyor 1
1969 First man on the moon
1990 Hubble landed
1998 Dark energy discovered by 2 different supernova teams
(Possibly not mentioned again as covered in another chapter…)
Discovery of exo planets
The fact that galaxies have Black holes
Main discoveries that will be mentioned…
Quasars are highly luminous star like objects, thought to be the most remote and furthest objects in the universe. So bright are they that the light they emit can be seen over a distance of 12 billion light years!
Dark matter is an invisible matter that is thought to make up 90% of our universe, detected only by using gravitation, as it emits no radiation or light!
A black hole is an area in space caused by compacted mass, not even light can escape its clutches! Theories today suggest that these holes are caused by the collapse of a star at the end of its life cycle.
Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation
1964 – Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered cosmic microwave background radiation that radiates all through the universe space, and is believed to be leftover from when the universe initially began
Scientists believe in their existence for many years but it wasn’t until 1995 that they were able to prove that they were in fact out there somewhere!